tec5USA Equipment Applications for Thin Film Analysis

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Wafer Metrology

Characterization and processing of semiconductor wafers is essential for the production of ever smaller and higher density devices. Thin film measurements using broadband white light for multi-layer interference as well as optical emission spectroscopy are key methodologies for accurately determining film thickness as well as composition of key material layers on the wafer. 

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White Light Interferometry

White light interferometry is essential for the measurement of thin film materials. The light that impinges on the multilayer surface of the wafer has a reflection of the light at each layer interface. When the reflected or transmitted light is collected and analyzed, an interference pattern, which encodes the layer thickness within the fringes, is observed. A Fourier transform or optical model can then be used to extract important material characteristics, such as the complex index and thickness parameters. tec5USA offers solutions for these measurements which combine high speed acquisition as well as multichannel systems that allow for high accuracy and high throughput measurements.

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Optical Emission Spectroscopy

Optical emission spectroscopy covers a broad set of applications within wafer characterization and processing. Emission spectroscopy arises from a highly excited material that emits light that is characteristic to the specific element or compound. In deposition processes, such as CVD or PVD, the emission of the vapor within the chamber can be used to control the deposition rate at the substrate. Additionally, after deposition, the wafer can be further processed via etching techniques which allow for precise compositional analysis with some layers indicating an endpoint of the process. tec5USA offers solutions for optical emission spectroscopy where the high wavelength accuracy, precise electronic timing control, and the highly sensitive CCD based sensor offer superior process control for a wide array of wafer processing applications.

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    Frequently Asked Questions at tec5USA

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    Typical applications include white light interference for thin film analysis, UV absorption of proteins for quantitative analysis, colorimetry, impurity detection in water, cleaning validation for API manufacturing, polymerization inhibitor monitoring, electroplating bath monitoring....

    The spectroscopic methodology is determined by which parameters are important to monitor during a process. For example, if you want to monitor protein concentration in a bioreactor, in which the biosynthesis takes place in an aqueous medium, then you likely would want to use Raman spectroscopy for the application, as water does not contribute to the Raman signal. Alternatively, if moisture content is important, water has very strong absorption in the NIR due to several vibrational and combination modes that can be monitored; water is transparent in the UV and visible spectral region. Understanding which chemical is important as there could be various factors that influence the choice of methodology....

    NIR spectroscopy is utilized across a variety of industries for qualitative and quantitative product analysis. Typical industries include Chemistry, Pharmacology, Food Feed & Beverage, Agriculture, and others. NIR spectroscopy is well suited for species containing C-H, N-H & O-H bonds, making it a wide-range technology for a variety of applications such as moisture, fat, oil, alcohol, APIs, polymers, etc....

    Raman spectroscopy is a technique which is used for several markets. These industries include Oil and Gas, Pharmacology, Biotechnology, Petrochemistry and many others. Due to the high selectivity of Raman spectroscopy, it is a powerful tool for many applications including, hydrocarbon analysis, bioreactor protein monitoring, crystallization monitoring, API concentration, polymer identification, surfactant analysis, natural gas components and several others....


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