PHARMACOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY

Equipment Applications for Pharmacology-Mixing and Blending

Mixing and Blending

Mixing and blending are two types of processes to combine materials.  It is performed in pharmaceutical manufacturing to create a homogeneous or uniform blend prior to introduction into the tableting process.  Mixtures may include:   APIs, excipients, binders, lubricants, sweeteners and diluents.  If the process of mixing or blending is not done correctly, product quality can be compromised.

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Mixing

The process of mixing is different than blending. The main mechanisms involve convection, shear or diffusion of the powders to a uniform mixture of API and other chemicals prior to introduction to the tableter.

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Blending

Blending is gentler than mixing. A bulk product is blended together to a uniform product through various tumbler blenders or convective blenders. Care should be taken not to over blend the contents and detection of homogeneity should be monitored.

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    Typical applications include white light interference for thin film analysis, UV absorption of proteins for quantitative analysis, colorimetry, impurity detection in water, cleaning validation for API manufacturing, polymerization inhibitor monitoring, electroplating bath monitoring....

    The spectroscopic methodology is determined by which parameters are important to monitor during a process. For example, if you want to monitor protein concentration in a bioreactor, in which the biosynthesis takes place in an aqueous medium, then you likely would want to use Raman spectroscopy for the application, as water does not contribute to the Raman signal. Alternatively, if moisture content is important, water has very strong absorption in the NIR due to several vibrational and combination modes that can be monitored; water is transparent in the UV and visible spectral region. Understanding which chemical is important as there could be various factors that influence the choice of methodology....

    NIR spectroscopy is utilized across a variety of industries for qualitative and quantitative product analysis. Typical industries include Chemistry, Pharmacology, Food Feed & Beverage, Agriculture, and others. NIR spectroscopy is well suited for species containing C-H, N-H & O-H bonds, making it a wide-range technology for a variety of applications such as moisture, fat, oil, alcohol, APIs, polymers, etc....

    Raman spectroscopy is a technique which is used for several markets. These industries include Oil and Gas, Pharmacology, Biotechnology, Petrochemistry and many others. Due to the high selectivity of Raman spectroscopy, it is a powerful tool for many applications including, hydrocarbon analysis, bioreactor protein monitoring, crystallization monitoring, API concentration, polymer identification, surfactant analysis, natural gas components and several others....

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